Tuesday, March 17, 2009

High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction

High-resolution diffraction is a collection of application techniques that is applied for the measurements of nearly-perfect materials.

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Most semiconductor device structures, based on silicon, silicon-germanium, III-V and II-VI compounds, are epitaxially grown from the gas phase onto a substrate. These films are nearly-perfect crystalline films and contain a low dislocation density. Properties of these films are largely determined by their composition and structure.

Information from these layers, such as layer thickness, composition, strain and relaxation, can be obtained by measuring rocking curves and reciprocal space maps using high-resolution optics. Defect structures inside the layers can be revealed by X-ray topography.

High-resolution diffraction solutions

High-resolution diffraction experiments require a highly monochromatic beam with a well defined wavelength and equatorial divergence.

PANalytical X'Pert PRO MRD systems can be configured with a hybrid monochromator or a high-resolution monochromator to fulfil these requirements.

With PANalytical's X'Pert PRO Extended MRD system, an X-ray mirror and a high-resolution monochromator can be placed in line to deliver an incident X-ray beam that is not only highly monochromatic with a low divergence, but also has a high intensity. This high intensity is used to uncover the weakest details in a diffraction experiment.

X'Pert Epitaxy and Smoothfit provides functionality to analyze rocking curves, reciprocal space maps and wafer maps. Rocking curves can be simulated and fitted using patented algorithms.

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